TEXT IN TKINTER


In this tutorial, we are going to learn about the text widget in tkinter. We will learn about how we can apply different types of text methods along with tags and marks.





What is Text in Tkinter?

Text widgets in Tkinter are used to provide options to use text on Python application on multiple lines;  However, we already have the option on Entry widget which is used to implement single lines. With the text widget we can change the font and color to be displayed. 

Text widget also abets to use marks and tabs for locating different areas of the text. Use of windows and images along with the Text allows us to display the formatted text. Syntax of the text widget is:

text_tk = Text ( window, features )

Text features and properties are:

1 bg Displays the background color of the widget.
2 bd It shows the width of the border. Same as borderwidth.
3 cursor Shows the type of cursor when the mouse is hovered over the widget. The default is a pointed arrow cursor.
4 exportselection The text selected under this option is exported in the window manager. We can set it to 0 for not exporting anything.
5 font It shows the font of the widget.
6 fg Determines the foreground color of font that is used for the text widget.
7 height It represents the height of the text widget (number of lines).
8 highlightbackground It shows the highlight color of the background of the text widget when it is clicked.
9 highlightthickness Specifies the thickness of the highlight in focus.
10 highlightcolor It shows the highlight color of the text widget when it is clicked.
11 insertbackground Specifies the color of the insertion cursor. Black color is default.
12 insertborderwidth Specifies the border width of the cursor of the cursor. Default value is 0.
13 insertofftime Specifies the time in milliseconds in which the insertion cursor turns off during the blink cycle.
14 insertontime Specifies the time in milliseconds in which the insertion cursor turns on during the blink cycle.
15 insertwidth Specifies the width of the insertion cursor.
16 padx Adds padding in the horizontal direction
17 pady Adds padding in the vertical direction
18 relief This displays different types of borders. By default, it has a FLAT border.
19 selectbackground Sets the background color of the text widget.
20 selectborderwidth Sets the border width of the text widget.
21 spacing1 Demonstrates the amount of vertical space given above each line. Default value is 0
22 spacing2 Demonstrates the amount of extra vertical space given above each line. Default value is 0
23 spacing3 Demonstrates the amount of vertical space given below each line.
24 state This represents DISABLED or ACTIVE state of the widget.
25 tabs Controls how the tab character will be used for the positioning of the text.
26 width Shows the width of the text characters.
27 wrap This option is used for wrapping a line into multiple lines.
28 xscrollcommand If you have a scrollable text widget, then xscrollcommand will be used as a .set() method for the horizontal scrollbar.
29 yscrollcommand If you have a scrollable text widget, then xscrollcommand will be used as a .set() method for the vertical scrollbar

Methods for a text widget are:

1 delete(startindex, endindex) This method is used to delete characters within the specified range.
2 get(startindex, endindex) It fetches the characters available in the given range
3 index(index) It fetches the absolute index of the specified index.
4 insert(index, string) It is used for inserting a string through an index value.
5 see(index) It returns a boolean value depending on whether the text specified at the given index is displayed or not.

Mark methods:

Marks are of invisible nature, means a user cannot see them. They are positioned between the characters and move along with the text.

1 index(mark) It is used to fetch the index value at the specified mark.
2 mark_gravity(mark, gravity) It is used to fetch the gravity at the provided mark.
3 mark_names() It is used to get all the marks available in the widget.
4 mark_set(mark, index) Specifies the new position of the provided mark.
5 mark_unset(mark) Removes the provided mark of the text.

Tags Methods:

Tags are used for displaying styles and calling events within the ranges of text.

1 tag_add(tagname, startindex, endindex) This method is used for tagging string within the given range.
2 tag_config This method is used for configuring the tagging properties.
3 tag_delete(tagname) This method is used to delete a provided tag.
4 tag_remove(tagname, startindex, endindex) This method is used for removing a tag from the given range.



Creating Text Widget

You can create simple a text widget as follows:

from tkinter import *
screen = Tk()
screen.geometry('400x400')
text = Text(screen)
text.insert(INSERT, "I am red")
text.insert(END, " and I am blue")
text.pack()
 
text.tag_add("hg1", "1.5", "1.8")
text.tag_add("hg2", "1.18", "1.23")
text.tag_config("hg1", background="red", foreground="white")
text.tag_config("hg2", background="blue", foreground="white")
screen.mainloop()

Output will be:

tkinter-text-widget

References have been used from here